April 16
Review solfege singing 333.
sing folksongs in modes
prepare for exam
look at lesson plans
this link: this page as a pdf.


choral improvising by Christopher Azzara...
The same holds true for reading music notation in the context of creativity and improvisation. You will want your students to read (and listen to) music and have their minds “explode” and “give birth to all kinds of other [musical] ideas.” Too often, reading and writing notation are taught without regard to listening, comprehension, and improvisation.


Koops--teach by rote some harmonic and melodic patterns..
consider Tallis canon. Simple gifts. Azzara's suggestions also..


Michael Colgrass Graphic Notation for composing:




Exam:

Present:
5 pre-school
5 pentatonic
5 modal
5 your choice

5 lesson plans
written exam on Kodály.
Questions:
1. List the 4 musical objectives of Kodály Musical Training.
2. List the 5 important concepts for Kodaly teaching.
3. Explain what PPP means (Prepare, Present, Practice)
4. Describe VERY briefly who Kodály was.
5. Sing one number from selected from 333 exercises by Kodály (selected from numbers 323-333).


(from: Kodály Music Education Institute of Australia)

http://www.kodaly.org.au/the-kodaly-concept.html

The musical objectives of Kodály musical training may be listed as to develop the ability of all children to:
  • 1. Sing, play instruments and dance from memory, a large number of traditional singing games, chants, and folk songs, drawn first from the child's own heritage of folk song material and later expanded to include music of other cultures and countries.
  • 2. Perform, listen to, and analyze the great art music of the world.
  • 3. Achieve mastery of musicial skills, such as musical reading and writing, singing and part-singing.
  • 4. Improvise and compose, using their known musical vocabulary at each developmental level.

What is the Kodály concept?

  • 1. Rhythm symbols and syllables are utilized.
  • 2. Hand signals (solfege) are used to show tonal relationships.
  • 3. The moveable "do" is practiced.
  • 4. The musical material emphasized is the mother-tongue/folksong.
  • 5. The concept is child developmental in its learning sequence.
Singing is the Major Instrument
The concept begins with the total experience, then moves to the symbolization of that experience.
(
There should be comprehensive training in rhythm, solfege, sight-singing, listening, writing, performing, creating, and focus on aural and visual memory perceptions.)
(Jābūt visaptveroša mācību ritmā un solfege un redzes dziedāšanu,klausīšanās, rakstīšanas, veicot, radot, un koncentrēties uz skaņas un vizuālajiem atmiņas uztveri.)


Google translator to Latvian (so yes, you may laugh!!!)

Muzikālais mērķi Kodaly mūzikas apmācības var uzskaitīt kā, lai attīstītuspēju visu bērnu līdz:

1. Dzied, spēlē instrumentus un dejas no atmiņas, liels skaits tradicionālodziedāšanas spēles, dziedājumi un tautas dziesmas, sagatavo 1. nobērna paša mantojuma tautas dziesma materiālu un vēlāk paplašināja, iekļaujot mūziku par citām kultūrām un valstīm.
2. Veikt, klausīties un analizēt liela māksla mūziku pasaulē.
3. Panākt meistarību musicial prasmes, piemēram, mūzikas lasīšanas un rakstīšanas, dziesmām un nepilna dziedāšanu.
4. Improvizēt un komponēt, izmantojot savu zināmo muzikālo vārdnīcukatrā attīstības līmenī.
Kas ir Kodaly koncepcija?
1. Ritma simboli un zilbes tiek izmantotas.
2. Rokas signālus (solfege) tiek izmantoti, lai parādītu toņu attiecības.
3.Kustamo "zelta rokām" tiek praktizēta.
4.Muzikālais uzsvēra materiāls ir mother-tongue/folksong.
5.Koncepcija ir bērns attīstības savā mācību secībā.
Dziedāšana ir viens no galvenajiem instrumentiem

If you have not taught a song, you need to teach a song or lesson to the class to pass the class.






REVIEW:

by Dennis Wicks:
Summary
Under Kodály s guidance, an approach to music education evolved that drew on the best of educational thought from around the world. The approach is child-developmental and based on teaching, learning and understanding music through the experience of singing. The tools used to implement the approach are the movable-do system of solfa, rhythm syllables and hand signs.

The approach is relevant for classroom and instrumental music teachers, ensemble directors as well as amateur and professional musicians of all ages. One does not need to be 'a singer' to enjoy or benefit from this form of music making. The teaching and learning of music through use of the singing voice enables the most direct of musical responses, provides the opportunity for musical understanding at the deepest level and frees the student from the technical problems associated with instrumental music.

Kodály teaching continues to gain interest around the world where it has been adapted and implemented in a variety of settings from infant to adult training. The movement is characterised by a strong emphasis on teacher training and the development of a teacher s own musicianship skills. Professional associations in many countries around the world now seek to promote Kodály s philosophies and further its implementation.

References:

1. Zoltan Kodály in preface to Musical Reading and Writing by Erzsebet Szonyi (London: Boosey and Hawkes, 1978).

2. Lois Choksy, et al. Teaching Music in the Twentieth Century (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1986).

3. Kodaly quoting Schumman in Selected Writings of Zoltan Kodaly (Toronto: Boosey and Hawkes, 1974).



google translate to Latvian (I'm sure you may laugh!!)

kopsavilkums
SaskaņāKodálysvadībā, pieejamūzikasizglītībuattīstījusies, ka vērsauzlabākoizglītībasdomasnovisas pasaules.Pieeja irbērnaattīstībasun balstīts uzmācību, mācīšanāsunizpratnemūzikucaur pieredzidziedāšanā.Instrumenti, ko izmanto, lai īstenotupieeju, ir kustamā-dosistēmasolfa, ritmazilbesunrokupazīmes.

Pieeja ir būtiska, lai klasēuninstrumentālāmūzikasskolotāju,ansambļadirektori, kā arīamatieruunprofesionālumūziķuvisu vecumu. Viens navnepieciešamsbūt"dziedātājs" baudītvaigūt labumuno šāda veidamūzikas veidošanu.Mācīšana unapguvemūzikasizmantošanas rezultātādziedošā balsīļaujvistiešākāmūzikasatbildēm, dodiespējumūzikasizpratnidziļākajālīmenīun atbrīvostudentamnotehniskām problēmām, kas saistītas arinstrumentālomūziku.

Kodálymācībuturpinasaņemt procentusvisāpasaulē, kurtasir pielāgotsun jāīstenodažādās vidēs, no zīdaiņalīdzpieaugušoapmācībai.Kustība raksturojasar spēcīguuzsvaru uzskolotājuapmācībuunskolotājaspašumusicianshipprasmju attīstību. Profesionālās asociācijasdaudzāsvalstīsvisāpasaulē,tagadcenšasveicinātKodálysfilozofijasunveicinātu tāsieviešanu.






(from: Kodaly Music Education Institute of Australia)

http://www.kodaly.org.au/the-kodaly-concept.html

The musical objectives of Kodaly musical training may be listed as to develop the ability of all children to:
  • 1. Sing, play instruments and dance from memory, a large number of traditional singing games, chants, and folk songs, drawn first from the child's own heritage of folk song material and later expanded to include music of other cultures and countries.
  • 2. Perform, listen to, and analyze the great art music of the world.
  • 3. Achieve mastery of musicial skills, such as musical reading and writing, singing and part-singing.
  • 4. Improvise and compose, using their known musical vocabulary at each developmental level.

What is the Kodaly concept?

  • 1. Rhythm symbols and syllables are utilized.
  • 2. Hand signals (solfege) are used to show tonal relationships.
  • 3. The moveable "do" is practiced.
  • 4. The musical material emphasized is the mother-tongue/folksong.
  • 5. The concept is child developmental in its learning sequence.
Singing is the Major Instrument
The concept begins with the total experience, then moves to the symbolization of that experience. The pedagogical principle of going from the known to the unknown is utilized. The same learning process is that in learning language is followed:
Level - K - (base level)
Give attention to in-tune singing, tone matching Sol-Mi and Sol-Mi-La patterns. Much work should be given to the feeling of the beat. Identify rhythmic patterns of simple, familiar songs. Teach duple meter, step and clap rhythm and beat. Echo clap. Concepts of High-low, Loud-soft, Fast-slow should be taught and practiced. Repertoire of songs and singing games of small range and easy rhythms from which to draw the later skill-teaching material. Folk songs and nursery rhymes are used for the repertoire.
Give opportunities to:
  • Say words to song in rhythm.
  • Clap the basic beat. (circular clapping is more musically sound)
  • Step to the beat.
  • Clap the rhythm of the text. (simple ta/ta rest)
  • Clap the rhythm while thinking the words but don't say them out loud.
Level - 1
Review all K material, continue folk song material, echo clapping is continued. Teach ta, ti-ti, ta-rest, repeat sign, sing songs and use simple rhythmic ostinati while singing. Teach measure, accented and unaccented beats. After the concept of regular accented and unaccented beats are understood, it is a short step to the function of the barline. Should be taught with duple meter but does not mean that only duple meter songs should be sung. It is essential to teach 3/4, 4/4, and 6/8 songs. Teach S-M and handsigns for S-M. Remember to practice the descending interval first then the ascending interval of M-S. The ascending interval is harder.
Present staff -
  • 1. Teach first - staff has 5 lines. Count from the bottom to the top. Teach that the staff also has 4 spaces.
  • 2. Define what "on the line" means. (line goes through the note)
  • 3. Practice putting notes on lines with felt staff with no stem, next practice putting notes on spaces.
  • 4. Have the children show positions of S-M.
  • 5. Teach if Sol is on a line then Mi is on the line below, if So is on the space, then Mi is on the space below.
Teach La, then sing many S-M-L songs. A good starting repertoire is 25 songs.
Teach La on the staff. If La is on a line then So is on the space below and vice-versa. Same procedure as teacing S-M.
Level - 2
Continue singing the native country's folk songs. Continue echo clapping and singing of song material with ostinati, melodic and rhythmic. Present new note "Do", then after several weeks of practice using Do-So, S-D, D-M, D-L, L-D, you should present "Re".
Re-So, So-Re, etc. Work on inner hearing, and melodic dictation should be practiced often.
You should use 2/4 and 4/4 meter. Then teach ta-ah and ta-ah rest. Present the fermata.
Concepts for Level Two
  • tippi - tippi which is four sixteenth notes all sharing the same flag.
  • Do
  • Rhythmic canon
  • 4 beat meter
  • Melodic canon
  • 8-beat phrase
  • Re
  • Do pentatonic scale
  • half note, two quarters tied and half rest
  • whole note and whole rest
  • fermata
  • first ending and second ending signs
Third Level
  • syncopa (syncopation) eighth note followed by a quarter followed by an eighth note.
  • Low la
  • La pentatonic
  • ti-tippi - eighth note followed by two sixteenths flagged together.
  • Low So
  • tippi-ti - two sixteenths followed by an eighth note flagged together.
  • ti-tippi, tippi-ti - combination usage
  • High Do
  • Single eighth note and eighth rest
  • Form variants
  • Lower number of meter signature

Kodaly Music Education

Music is for EVERYONE and is necessary for healthy human development.
Folk songs are the primary source material for beginning music education. Singing is the foundation of musical culture.
Aim to make every child musically literate. The voice is the instrument, with singing as the basic musical activity.
Kodaly music education is child developmental, not subject developmental.
There should be comprehensive training in rhythm, solfege, sight-singing, listening, writing, performing, creating, and focus on aural and visual memory perceptions.




Rhythm:

Guidelines for using rhythm syllables

http://www.kodaly.org.au/rhythm-syllables.html
 Ensure that students do not write the syllables on sheet music under rhythm patterns. The syllables are a tool for reading and dictating rhythms only.
 Ensure that students use correct theoretical names when talking about written notation. Eg. The crotchet in the third bar not the ta in the third bar.
 Ensure that students speak the rhythms in time with a good sense of beat and musicality. Don’t accept sloppy rhythms.
 Students should generally be keeping a beat when chanting the syllables.
 Don’t teach all the rhythm syllables at once but rather introduce them one at a time, allowing students time to master each one and using a developmental sequence.







Kodaly Teaching Tools - Solfa
http://www.kodaly.org.au/sol-fa.html



Solfa [solfège-Fr., solfeggio-It.] is a system of using syllables to represent the notes of the diatonic scale. Solfa can be applied in absolute (fixed-do) form or in relative (moveable-do) form. In England, through the work of Sarah Glover and John Curwen, moveable do solfa became the favored tool to teach singers to read music (sight sing).

In movable do solfa, do is the tonic note of a major scale


Sol-fa [solfège-Fr., solfeggio-It.] is a system that uses syllables to represent the notes of the diatonic scale. This system aids in musical analysis, sight-singing and aural comprehension. Sol-fa was first developed as a teaching tool by Benedictine monk, Guido of Arezzo, who adapted it from a Latin hymn written around 770 A.D. However, in modern times, many have become familiar with sol-fa syllables through their immortalization in the Rogers and Hammerstein Musical, The Sound of Music.


Sol-fa may be applied in one of two ways: In fixed ‘do’ form, the letter C is called ‘do’ regardless of the tonality of the music and regardless of any accidentals. This type of sol-fa is used in parts of Europe and as part of some training programs such as theYamaha and Forte keyboard approaches.
In England, through the work of Sarah Glover and John Curwen, moveable do sol-fa (tonic sol-fa) became the favoured tool to teach singers to read music (sight sing). It was this form that was adopted by the Hungarian teachers and became a feature of the Kodály approach.



In tonic sol-fa, the tonic (key) note of any major scale is called ‘do’.
external image majorscale.gif


The tonic note of any minor scale is ‘la’ which preserves its relationship to the major scale and ensures consistency when labeling the intervals within the scale.

external image nat-min-scale.gif



It is possible to chromatically raise or lower sol-fa syllables. A harmonic minor scale can be formed by raising the seventh note of the natural minor scale one semitone higher, thus ‘so’ becomes ‘si’.
external image harm-min-scale.gif


Common scales with their corresponding sol-fa syllables:

Ascending chromatic scale (using sharps):
external image chromatic-asc.gif
Descending chromatic scale (using flats):
external image chromatic-des.gif
Melodic Minor scale:
external image mel-min.gif